The metalworking through deformation (metal forming) is a main part of technological processes in different industries. Approximately 75-80 % of all ferrous metal and up to 60 % of non-ferrous metal is treated by rolling; about 20-25 % of ferrous metal – by forging; nearly 40 % of non-ferrous metal – by extrusion; and almost 15-20 % of all smelt metal – by massive forging. The presswork makes 60-85 % of proper weight in diesel- and electric locomotives, automobiles, airplanes, tractors etc.

The main metal forming processes are:

  • Hot and cold forging
  • Forging hammering
  • Upset
  • Forward and backward extrusion, pressing
  • Rolling
  • Shaped sections rolling, cogging and pilgering
  • Wire-drawing
  • Tube drawing
  • Ironing
  • Sheet-metal cold-pressing
  • Stretching, face-compressing and elastic medium bending
  • Roll forming (traditional roll forming, method of intensive deformation)
  • Roll- and block-drawing
  • Cogging
  • Pipe flaring
  • Tube reducing
  • Bead forming and deflanging
  • Cutting
  • Bimetal deformation

Mathematical simulation is one of trends in metal forming processes development. The mathematical simulation is the perfect and effective method of modeling as it makes possible to apply modern competent methods of mathematical analysis, calculus mathematics and programming in course of technological processes researches and optimization. Up to date the quantitative research techniques permeate into almost all spheres of human activity, and the mathematical models become a means of cognition of the real world’s basic laws.

The simulation can help in optimization of temperature and high-speed requirements of process while taking into account the stress-deformed state. It also promotes the optimum technique development. This is also favored by technological process models’ adequacy, and also precise description of metal behavior under the terms of deformation.

The modern state of mathematical modeling is a computer simulation with the implementation of mathematical methods. The computers have given to the scientists a powerful means for mathematical simulation. The mathematical models are a basis of simulation. The development of mathematical simulation methods and optimization of metal forming technological process together with large-scale implementation of personal computers allow creating the proprietary software permitting to model plastic forming processes, to investigate the stress-deformed state, temperature fields in course of metal forming in automated mode.

The applications founded on a finite element method are the most effective for completion of metal forming tasks. LS-DYNA, ABAQUS etc may be referred to such software.

LS-DYNA is one of the best programs metal deformation processes simulation. This application allows modeling almost all metalworking processes, starting from sheet-forming operations and completing with a powder metallurgy and deformation by explosion.

Another application of LS-DYNA in machine building is its application for the processes of materials treatment by cutting, and analysis of metal cutting and chip formation [1]. This process can be analyzed in LS-DYNA in various ways: the Lagrange method, the Euler method, and the SPH method. The process can be analyzed at various parameters: friction force, tool speed, etc. Results of modeling comply with experimental data.

1. Prediction of Cutting Forces in Metal Cutting, Using the Finite Element Method, a lagrangian Approach. Morten F. Villumsen, Torben G. Fauerholdt. LS-DYNA Anwenderforum, Bamberg 2008, metallumformung III