LS-DYNA program is widely used for modeling and calculation of impact and fracture.

This program is widely used to study calculations of processes of plate deformation and fracture dynamics under high-speed loading of a ram tester with a complex structure, for example, when studying penetration of bullet-resistant vests or explosions [1].

In this case a hard armour plate can be studied both in Lagrange and Euler formulations; the jacket and the slug of the bullet, as well as the initial volume can be given by Euler formulation.

Another application of LS-DYNA is related to modelling  of penetration of steel projectiles into concrete [2]. Analysis of modelling data and comparison with analytical data demonstrate a good correlation of values. In this case the ability of the selected concrete model to predict the depth of penetration or the residual velocity of the projectile was estimated. Standard material - 72 "Concerte Damage" - was used to model concrete using the Lagrange solution with a numerical fracture based on fracture tangential deformation.

LS-DYNA was used to evaluate the safety of new-style sea-going vessels, in particular, a vessel, which hull was made of high-density polyethylene [3]. The program was used to carry out structure-liquid modelling  of water and the hull of a boat and study a water impact of the hull. The boat impacted with water at different angles and wave height, and a modal analysis was also performed. Modelling showed realistic waveforms. The results of modelling allowed to reveal critical areas of the boat. Calculations were carried out again after design change. The results showed that a plastic boat can withstand one-meter waves at a speed of 40 knots without destruction, while a fiberglass hull can withstand waves at a speed of only 30 knots. So, modelling confirmed a possibility of using a new material - high-density polyethylene - for the hull of the boat.

LS-DYNA was also used to carry out drop-tests of various structures - from cellular phones [4] to aircraft corps. Impact modelling allows identifying a possibility of structure fracture at initial parameters, as well as points of fracture. This information will allow designers to create more reliable and shock-proof devices.

LS-DYNA allows studying body armours of various structures, including body armours with layered fabric plates under local loading [5], for example, caused by bullet. In addition, gravel impact on the aircraft body during takeoff or landing, gravel impact on the car body on the road, etc. can be referred to such researches.

Both localized and transverse impacts on the flexible thread caused by a body of a predetermined shape, impacts on orthotropic plates and finite size shells, multilayer orthotropic plates and finite size shells, etc. by a body of a predetermined shape can be studied when studying textile bullet-resistant vests.

We should mention the following parameters used in LS-DYNA: fabric threads can be modelled by shell elements with the formulation Belichko _ wonga _ changa, material * mat _ enhangeb _ composite _ damage can be used for threads, which allows to specify orthotropic mechanical properties of threads, take into account destruction, etc.

The program is also used to study high-speed penetration in 3D destructible aluminum models, for example, for the destruction of an aircraft engine blade [6]. This topic is rather pressing, since the safety of fixed-wing flying to a large extent depends on accident-prevention projects, only after a realistic damage assessment.

LS-DYNA allows modelling interaction between motor blades and other objects. The program has a large database for modelling  using various criteria of destruction, which allows to conduct various tests.

LS-DYNA can also be used to obtain characteristics of parameters of fragmentation fields [7] for modelling  of explosive throwing of fragmentation shells, when it is necessary to obtain data on the parameters of the fragmentation field, density and velocity of fragments at equatorial and meridian angles.

LS-DYNA is used in aeronautical applications for modelling of the process of collision of a bird with aircraft blades [8].

Various methods can be used for this study: Lagrange, ALE and SPH methods. A comparison of all three methods with the analytical solution showed a discrepancy of only 7%. The process of bird collision with aircraft blades can be divided into 3 parts: frontal penetration to a hard flat plate, zero penetration and penetration at an angle of 30 degrees. A bird model can be modelled as a cylinder. All three options can be analyzed; an optimal and the most critical from the point of view of damage to the aircraft engine blades simulation option can be chosen.

Another area of LS-DYNA ​​application is its use in mathematical modelling of an asteroid falling into the ocean [9]. In this case mathematical models of soil, asteroid and water materials were preset. The soil and asteroid were determined by the hydrodynamic model of material * mat_elastic_plastic_hydro with a bilinear dependence between stress intensity and the intensity of the plastic deformation, and also Gruneisen equation - dependence of changes in the volume on pressure - was used. A model of NULL material with the dependence of the volume change on pressure (Gruneisen equation) was used taking into account the viscosity. The fluid was considered on a fixed grid in ALE formulation, and the asteroid and soil - on a deformable grid using Lagrange formulation.

The problem was solved using an explicit integration method. The analysis of the solution performed in LS-DYNA showed good coordination with other programs, including such parameters as the initial wave height, the horizontal component of wave movement speed, the radius of the water cavity, and so on.

1. Sapozhnikov S. B., Forental M. V. Dynamics of deformation and fracture of plates under high-speed loading with complex structure // 2nd all-Russian conference of users LS-DYNA , 7-8 October, 2010, Dalnaya dacha, Russia.

2 . Numerical simulations of penetration and perforation of high performance concrete with 75mm steel projectile. Weapons and Protection Division SE-147 25 TUMBA .

3. Drop Test into Water and Wave Impact Simulations of a Novel 7-Meter Plastic Boat with LS-DYNA. Martin Vezina, Arash Firoozrai, SimuTech Group Inc. 550 Chemin du Golf, suite 100 Verdun ( Quebec ), Canada H3E 1A8.

4. Comparison of ANSYS and LS-DYNA for Performing Drop Test Simulation. Rich Bothmann Analysis Services Division Manager IMPACT Engineering Solutions. 2007 - IMPACT Engineering Solutions, Inc.

5. Sapozhnikov S. B., Galanina N. Yu. Deformation and failure of laminated fabric plates under local strike // the 2nd all-Russian users conference LS-DYNA , October 7-8, 2010, a Distant country, Russia.

6. Paul Du Bois, Murat Buyuk, Jeanne He, Steve Kan . Development, implementation and Validation of 3-D Failure Model for Aluminium 2024 for High Speed Impact Applications // 2nd Russian LS-DYNA Users Conference October 7-8, 2010 Dalnaya Dacha, Russia.

7. Komleva N.V., Lytkin N.V.,Orlov A. G. Problem-oriented application to the postprocessor ls-dyna to obtain the characteristic parameters of fragmentation fields / / 2nd all-Russian conference of users LS-DYNA, October 7-8, 2010, dacha, Russia.

8. Robust bird-strike modeling using ls-dyna. Carlos alberto huertas-ortecho. University of puerto rico mayaguez campus 2006 .

9. Minaev I.V., Abramov A.V.,Voikin O.V., etc. Mathematical modeling of asteroid falling into the ocean // the 2nd all-Russian users conference LS-DYNA , October 7-8, 2010, a Distant country, Russia.